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01/17 2009

【引用 Matthew 3:15】イエスがバプテスマを授かることが“正しい”に関して

イエスがバプテスマのヨハネからバプテスマを授かることを「正しい」(マタイ3:15)と言った意味についての見解の引用。

Carson, D.A. "Matthew". The Expositor's Bible Commentary. vol. 8.より

Here interpretations are legion. They may be summed up as follows: 1. By undergoing baptism Jesus anticipates his own baptism of death, by which he secures "righteousness" for all [...] Worse, Cullmann reads Paul's use of "righteousness" back into Matthew, who in fact never uses the term that way but always as meaning "conformity to God's will" or the like [...] 2. Others suggest that Jesus must obey ("fulfill") every divine command ("all righteousness"), and baptism is one such command. Put so crassly this view forgets that the baptism relates to repentance and confession of sins, not to righteousness itself. A slight modification of it says that by being baptized Jesus is acknowledging as valid the righteous life preached by John and demanded of those who accept John's baptism, for Jesus acknowledges (21:32) that John came to show the way of righteousness. But this view forces "fulfill" to become "acknowledge" and neglects the fact that John's baptism relates, not to the standards of righteousness John preached, but to repentance. 3. The strengths of the alternative views may be integrated in a better synthesis. John's baptism, it will be remembered, had two foci: repentance and its eschatological significance. Jesus affirms, in effect, that it is God's will ("all righteousness") that John baptize him; and both John and Jesus "fulfill" that will, that righteousness, by going through with it ("it is proper for us"). The aftermath, [...] In particular Jesus is indeed seen as the Suffering Servant (Isa 42:1; cf. on 3:17). But the Servant's first mark is obeying God: he "fulfills all righteousness" since he suffers and dies to accomplish redemption in obedience to the will of God. By his baptism Jesus affirms his determination to do his assigned work. (107-08)



Dockery, D. S. "BAPTISM". Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels.より

Theologically, the baptism of Jesus identifies Jesus as the messianic servant who stands in solidarity with his people [...] Righteousness in Matthew's Gospel refers to those who are upright and law-abiding, obedient and faithful to God's commandments [...] Now he fulfills the moral demands of God's will. In so doing, Jesus identifies and sanctions John's ministry as divinely ordained and his message as one t obe heeded. Jesus began his ministry with the same demand for repentance, affirming John's baptizing work. (57)



Hagner, Donald A. "Matthew 1-13". Word Biblical Commentary. 33A.より

Righteousness is a key concept in Matthew (seven occurrences). It is preeminently the goal of discipleship (5:20; 6:1, 33), that is, the accomplishing of God’s will in its fullness. It is accordingly closely associated with the coming of the kingdom (cf. 5:6, 10). Thus John’s appearance to make preparation is described by Jesus as his coming ἐν ὁδῷ δικαιοσύνης, “in the way of righteousness” (21:32; cf. 21:25). It is in the latter sense, as a part of the process of salvation-history [...] But why does Jesus need to be baptized by John at all? Not because he was himself a sinner (Strauss, Life of Jesus; B. Weiss), nor simply to identify with John’s movement (Loisy; Manson, Servant-Messiah). Beasley-Murray (Baptism) correctly argues that Jesus thereby shows his solidarity with his people in their need. (56-57)


また、HagnerがMatthew's Gospel内でのrighteousnessが一様でないことを裏付けるために引用したGesetz(104-21)の言葉は以下の通り。

In a full study of the subject (Righteousness in Matthew), B. Przybylski concludes that all seven occurrences involve God’s demand upon human beings, i.e., proper conduct before God [...] In the present instance, several reasons may be offered for accepting a salvation-history understanding of δικαιοσύνη: (1) It is difficult to understand submission to John’s baptism as submitting to God’s demand [...] (2) Since Matthew, as nearly all admit, has a salvation-historical perspective, there is no reason to exclude the possibility that he can understand δικαιοσύνη here not as moral goodness but as the will of God in the sense of God’s saving activity. (56)



「救済史という御父のご計画をイエスが成就するために、ヨハネよりバプテスマを授かった御民とイエスが連帯する」という意味で“正しいことを成就するのは、われわれ(イエスとヨハネ)にふさわしい」(口語訳)と言われた、ということなのでしょう。「苦しみの僕」をここから読むのはちょっと読み込みか?ヨハネのバプテスマと礼典のバプテスマを同一視するのは使徒19:3-5と相容れない。
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